FOUNDING OF KAJAR DYNASTY 387 some of its treasures. Nasrulla Mirza, being worsted, sought aid from Karim Khan, but this was refused, and soon afterwards he died. Meshed was next seized by Mamish Khan of Chinaran, a petty Kurdish chief, who held it for five years until the authority of Shah Rukh was restored by Timur Shah, the Durrani monarch, who retained the suzerainty established by his father. Of the independent rulers, Ishak Khan Karai was the most celebrated. A man of low birth, he occupied Turbat-i-Haydari, some eighty miles to the south of Meshed, and built a caravanserai with money supplied by the chief of his tribe. Before the completion of this building, which was strongly fortified, intrigues had resulted in the death of his master, whose sons fled the country, and Ishak Khan gradually carved out a province for himself and became a power in the land. In the south of the province, Mir Hasan Khan of Tabas, a descendant of the Beni Shayban who had aided Lutf Ali, held a district bordering on the Lut and played a leading part in Khorasan. Of the other districts, Nishapur was independent under a Bayat chief; Kain was under an Arab ruler descended from the Khuzayma ; Turshiz was ruled by another Arab family of the Mishmast tribe. Zafaranlu Kurds governed in Kuchan and Shadillu Kurds in Bujnurd ; Sabzawar was held by a chief of the Ghilichi, a Turkish tribe, and finally Sistan was ruled by a petty chief who claimed Keianian descent.1 We now turn westward to Kurdistan. The descend- ants of the ancient Karduchi maintained almost complete independence on the Persian side of the frontier, and on the Turkish side only the sections occupying accessible lands obeyed the Pasha of Baghdad. Of the Kurdish chiefs on the Persian side of the frontier, the most powerful was Khusru Khan, Vali of Ardelan. From Sinna, his capital, he ruled a large district, and at this city his son entertained Malcolm in princely fashion in 1810. The Vali of Ardelan had supported the claims of Karim Khan, but afterwards, having espoused the cause of Ismail 1 It has been my task to trace the fortunes of these tribes, almost aU pf which arc to be found in or near the dUtncts they ruled a century ago.